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The cherry tree
The cherry tree can reach up to 20 meters in height if it is the sweet cherry variety that has a smooth and very compact bark. The tree produces crunchy and very fleshy fruits. Then we find the sour cherry that is much smaller than the first and produces very succulent fruits that are used mostly in confectionery for the preparation of desserts or homemade jams. Finally there is the ornamental tree which is purely from flower and is used essentially to decorate balconies or terraces or to make beautiful display in ornamental gardens.
Trees of this type are found in all parts of the world but Norway and Ukraine are full of them. The trees are not affected by particular diseases if they are kept well apart from the rust that causes the leaves to fall and the corineum which forms holes in the leaves.
The cherry tree is a really undemanding tree and it is one of the plants that resists the cold indeed it is a tree that bears very cold winter temperatures just think that it dies only if the temperature drops below 30 degrees below zero. It has no requirements with regard to the terrain and it adapts to all types as long as it does not have water stagnation. In Italy there are two types of cherry in particular that adapt to our areas and are the Santa Lucia cherry and the mountain cherry. The first from small plants while the second has large dimensions. The cherry blossoms are born in bunches of three or four specimens from a single bud. This showy inflorescence means that many insects approach the trees that contribute to pollen transport. The flowers of this tree have five sepals and five petals and the stamens are attached to the petals and fall with them only after the flower has been fertilized. A pistil ends up in the ovary which is a free ovary. When it receives the pollen it will become a tasty cherry. As you can see the cherry tree is a tree with very few needs including pruning that compared to other trees, must be done with extreme caution.
In the vegetative season, that is, between spring and summer, the training pruning is performed. We have seen that the cherry suffers from the healing of cuts, so this is the right period only because the milder climatic conditions favor the closure of the cuts. These operations will take place four or five times. In the first year the flowers present are removed and the peripheral branches are shortened. In the second year only the central branches are shortened and only the tops of the peripheral branches shortened last year will be trimmed. In the following two years, only the tips of all the branches will shorten.Production pruning
If the cherry has finished its production cycle, then it can be pruned and this happens at the end of the hot season. At the end of January, another short pruning will be performed on a plant that is exhausted, to favor the next vegetation. If the area where the plant is located is subject to frost, the operation will be postponed. During the phase in which the plant is vegetating and flowers and leaves begin to be born, it is preferable not to touch it and postpone pruning. The technique that will be used will be that of the return cut which includes a pruning that avoids the formation of stumps since the cherry tree, as we have said, does not like to be pruned also because pruning does not benefit fruiting. However, it is necessary to rejuvenate the tree and do it by eliminating withered leaves and branches, it is necessary to eliminate those branches that twist around each other and overlap them. It is necessary to shorten very long branches to facilitate harvesting. Branches that are too large and resistant should not be touched, but if you do so, you need to put a healing mastic where the shears have been used, which also creates an anti-parasite barrier. For all the prunings that will have to be done only for necessity, the tools that are used and the shears, must be sterilized and the pruning must be performed by a competent hand at the most.
Cherry pruning: Cherry pruning tools
In addition to knowing where to put your hands on the cherry tree, it is important to know how to cut the cherry or what tools to use and how. First of all, it is necessary to clarify immediately that the pruning of the plants must always be carried out with sharp and sharp blades, which are able to cut the branches without burrs and slabs. Clear and decisive cuts are in fact fundamental to minimize the uncovered surface and precise and clean interventions ensure that there is less space for settlement for possible fungi or parasites.
For this reason we must avoid all the instruments that lacerate plants such as the hacksaw and the chainsaw, which make inaccurate cuts that open up the bark in a disordered manner, while tools such as pruning shears, shears and scissors are to be favored. thanks to their sharp blades they produce very precise cuts.
Another aspect to consider, especially if we have to intervene on sick plants, is the cleaning of the pruning tools that must absolutely be disinfected between a cut to the infected plant and the other, to avoid that the pathogen is transmitted through the cutting tools.