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Every grape lover and vineyard worker wants the fruit of the grape to provide maximum benefit and flavor. The quality of the grapes depends on many factors.
Vineyard maintenance requires a lot of attention. In order for the fruits of the grapes to be not only beautiful and tasty, but also useful, it is necessary to carefully monitor the soil and trees.
There are many pests who are not averse to feasting on such delicious fruits. One of the most dangerous pests is Phyloxera.
If you are faced with such a pest in your vine garden, then in our article you will learn all the features of its origin and the fight against it.
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Phyloxera (Viteus vitifolii) - this is a very small aphid, up to 1 mm, oval in shape with red eyes, which settles in the root system. However, depending on the phylloxera species, damage to both the root system and the entire surface, including leaves, is possible.
There are two types of phylloxera - root and leaf.
Phyloxera of the root species looks like an oval larva without yellowish wings with a sucking proboscis and antennae.
As a rule, it lives in the root system, sucks juice from the roots and swellings appear. After that, the root system rots, respectively, over time, the plant may die.
Aphids can also reproduce by laying eggs. During the year, aphids can give about 14 generations. From the larvae of the phylloxera, large females and small males, which have wings, appear.
With the help of their wings, aphids can be found and multiply around the entire perimeter of the plant. The root type of phylloxera is usually found in European grape varieties.
There is also a species of leaf phylloxera, which settles on the leaves of the vineyard and there in full program affects the plant, mainly the mother plants of rootstock vines.
Leafy phylloxera with a short, dirty yellow proboscis forms peculiar galls on the leaves. In these galls, new larvae live, feed and grow, which form both root and leaf species.
In winter, the root aphid does not die, but also lives in the roots and waits in the wings. From the first days of spring, the larvae begin their activity in the form of feeding and laying fresh eggs in the cracks of the wood, their number reaches more than a hundred pieces.
After two weeks, the eggs give rise to larvae, which, after several molts, turn into full-fledged females, which are also capable of laying eggs.
During the summer, about 8 generations of phylloxera reproduce. Larvae of the first and second instars also spend the winter in rhizomes.
In huge vineyards and small areas, it is not so easy to identify the appearance of such a dangerous pest. Therefore, such an inspection should be entrusted to experienced state quarantine inspectors.
The damage to the bushes and roots is checked, how swollen the roots are from sucking out all the juices from them, rotten areas are also a sign of phylloxera infection. Also, the bushes are lagging in growth, yield decreases.
The verification technique can be studied in detail in the special book "Grape phylloxera" by I. Kazas and A. Garkovenko.
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It is necessary to choose the right grape varieties, carefully select the soil for cultivation and the climate in which these fruits can develop favorably. Agricultural technology also plays an important role.
The phylloxer can also be picked up from unverified sellers of planting material in the markets. However, it can be carried with footwear, planting and processing materials, pegs, and so on. This is how phylloxera appeared in Russia.
Fight against phylloxera
The main form of fighting phylloxera is quarantine. It is necessary to carry out only legal imports of grape varieties, to exclude the purchase from unfamiliar sellers.
If you find signs of phylloxera, you must immediately inform the sanitary station.
One of the main ways to combat this pest is to disinfect the planting material. There are two methods of disinfection - wet method and fumigation.
The wet method is used at a time when phylloxera is very active, then it is effective; for this, an emulsion of the gamma isomer of hexachlorocycliclhexane is used.
Fumigation method is used to disinfect specialized inspection teams that carry out plant quarantine and use it during the period of a calm state of phylloxera.
To prevent young bushes from infesting aphids, polyethylene covers are put on the seedlings and deeply planted in the soil in their permanent place.
It is necessary to ensure that the bushes are not overloaded with the amount of fruit, and also are not densely planted. This reduces the resistance to phylloxera.
The phylloxera leaf species is chemically combated, which excludes the appearance of fungal diseases. For this, spraying is used in two stages: the first - when the buds open and shoots appear, and the second - when 10 leaves develop.
If galls were found on the leaves, which followed due to the defeat of the phylloxera, then spraying is carried out again.
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Grafted crops are less susceptible to phylloxera lesions, and this is how they managed to get rid of this pest in the West. As a rule, rootstocks were used for this, which are resistant to the appearance of phylloxera.
Basically, such rootstocks are hybrid, they are not only phylloxera resistant, they also prevent the appearance of carbonate in soils, they are perfectly combined with grafted varieties on these rootstocks. It is also necessary to ensure that the climate and soil conditions allow their grafting.
It should be borne in mind that cuttings with phylloxera lesions should not be harvested for propagation.
Along with preventive methods of struggle, there are a number of agronomic techniques. First of all, you need to monitor the land in which the seedlings are planted. In sandy lands, phylloxera cannot advance and pests do not survive; in dry soils, the root system will rot less.
If it is not possible to plant grapes in sandy soil, then you should dig a deep and wide hole, fill the voids with sandy soil. Thus, phylloxera will not have favorable conditions for development.
The sand requires frequent watering, but it is better to water more often than to deal with phylloxera later.
The defeat of vineyards by this pest is one of the main problems in the cultivation of full-fledged fruits. Considering all the nuances of the appearance of phylloxera, its reproduction and the peculiarities of the lesion, it is advisable to initially understand the problem and begin to deal with it.
It should also be remembered that much depends on the vigilance of vineyard owners. As already mentioned, phylloxera can be started not only with seedlings, but also with many other things that do not belong to garden utensils.