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At the word "bug" (heteroptera), perhaps a hemipterologist will not frown. This is the name of the people who study these hemiptera of the order of insects.
The hallmark of these insects is a specific smelly odor released by special glands in case of danger. Today we'll talk about the street representatives of these insects.
In modern classification there are four subfamilies:
- horseflies (named for the lack of eyes);
- lace makers (have transparent elytra, as if woven from thin lace);
- predators (predatory, feed on the blood of animals and humans);
- bug bugs (the name was given behind the back - a shell, shaped like a shield).
They feed on insects and their larvae. Triatom bugs are dangerous to humans.... A large insect (up to 20 mm in length), black in shape, resembles a stick. They bite a person less often than popular bed bugs. But with saliva, trypanos parasites penetrate.
They suffer dangerous Chagas disease... Medicine is powerless against it. Symptoms: headache, shortness of breath, pain in the heart, seizures. Therefore, it is also called "killer bug" or "kiss bug".
We hasten to calm you down. Terrible insects do not live on our continent. Distribution South America.
The other three subfamilies threaten orchards, vegetable gardens, and cereals.
Blindflies and lace makers
Two representatives bring little harm to fruit trees:
- apple horsefly (affecting young leaves of apple trees);
- pear lacemaker (lives in the southern regions on pears, apple trees, cherries).
Methods of dealing with them are reduced to spring whitewashing tree trunks with lime and cleaning the garden from weeds.
Horticultural crops actively eat bugs of the subfamily of scutellids. They are also famous for their particularly strong aroma (stink bug). There are several dozen species of bush bugs known, this includes. We will talk about the most common ones.
Tree bug: photo below
Cabbage and rapeseed bugs... Having left their wintering places in the spring, the pests attack the weeds. Later attack cabbage seedlings, radish, mustard, turnip... For this they received another name - cruciferous.
The insects are distinguished by a bright color and a beautiful pattern on the back. They differ from each other in colors.
Cabbage is confused with the children's favorite - the soldier. They are very similar indeed. The backs of both are red. Cabbage differs in the number of spots on the scutellum and elytra. He has six of them.
Rape bug has a shiny back. Its color varies from black with a metallic sheen to green, sometimes with a bluish tint. Young individuals have one yellow spot at the end of the scutellum and elytra. Longitudinal stripe of the same color in front. With age, the pattern turns white or red.
Cabbage grows up to 10 mm in length, rapeseed smaller (from 5 to 8 mm).
Larvae bring significant harm... They appear within 7-14 days after the female laid yellowish-gray eggs (their number can reach three hundred pieces). Larvae differ from adult scutellids in size and lack of wings. Like older individuals, larvae pierce a leaf of a plant with a proboscis and suck out the juice.
Important! Bed bugs can destroy up to 40% of the cabbage crop. They are especially dangerous for seedlings.
If young seedlings wilt, curl, turn yellow, white or yellowish spots appear on the leaves of cruciferous crops, it's time to sound the alarm.
What to do?
If the pests have not had time to breed, they can be collected by hand. A large colony will have to be driven out with various drugs. In industrial gardening use all kinds of pesticides... They destroy bedbugs quickly. At the same time, they negatively affect human health, accumulating in plants.
The best solution would be to use environmentally friendly natural ingredients.
They are used to prepare infusions and decoctions for spraying vegetable crops.
- Onion peel (200-300 gr.) Pour ten liters of hot water. Insist for at least five days, strain.
- More efficient onion infusion... A large onion must be finely chopped, filled with water, and infused for six hours in a closed container.
Important! Since the infusion is not subject to long-term storage, it must be prepared in the amount required for spraying.
- Sarepta mustard (the second name is Russian) it is useful to plant next to cabbage as a siderat. She will scare off cruciferous bugs. The infusion is used for spraying. For cooking, take half a glass of mustard powder. Dilute it with a small amount of water (you should get a liquid gruel). Maintain the mass under the lid for two days. Then it is diluted in ten liters of water, mixed thoroughly.
- Reliable, time-tested remedy - laundry soap... Dissolve two pieces in ten liters of water and spray the plants. Spraying should be carried out several times (depending on the number of pests) at intervals of five days.
Important! It is necessary to process not only plants affected by bugs, but also healthy ones.
Large insect (up to 1 cm in length) is easily recognized by the yellow transverse stripes on the antennae and sides (similar to the Italian bug). The body is reddish-brown or gray in summer, turns brown by autumn.
You can meet on any berry crop. Prefers raspberries, currants and gooseberries... Brown spots on the leaves, dried and unpleasantly smelling berries indicate the presence of a berry beatnik.
How to fight?
The bug does not cause serious damage to the crop due to the small population. Enough preventive measures (weed control, digging up land around berry crops).
You can spray berry crops decoction of bark and fresh alder leaves (two kilograms per bucket of water). Pour the components with water in the evening, leave overnight. Boil in the morning for an hour, let cool.
Green forest bug
It is often called the green garden bug or herb bug.
Grazing predominantly on raspberry and gooseberry bushes... If there are no berry crops, it is content with the juice of the foliage of the trees. Can live in the grass. Causes significant damage to cereals.
The bug has almost no enemies... Its protection is a dense chitinous shell with a thickening at the top. There are short wings, but the insect rarely flies.
Like other members of the species, the green bug changes color depending on the color of the environment. Bright green in spring and summer, by autumn the bug turns yellow-brown.
Green forest bug: photo below
It has a very small size (no more than 3 mm) and incredible jumping ability. The body is black. It is sometimes confused with fleas. Loves high humidity prefers to live in greenhouses.
It settles on the bottom of the sheet. The female is fertile. In a short time, the bug is able to infect all greenhouse plants. Harmful not only to cucumbers, but also to tomatoes, sweet peppers... The leaves of the plants turn yellow, become covered with small holes, and curl. The fruits stop developing.
How to withdraw?
- Effectively fights against cucumber bugs garlic... Put a glass of minced garlic in a liter jar, add water and close tightly. Insist in a dark place for five days. Filter. Add two glasses of garlic tincture to a bucket of water. Spray the plants.
- Monitor the condition of the soil in greenhouses... It is through it that the contamination of cultures occurs. To improve the microflora, nettle tincture is used. The plant is cut, poured with water, kept for a week in a warm place (you can in the sun). The fermented solution is cultivated in the greenhouse.
A number of preventive measures will help preserve the harvest.
- It is known that insects overwinter in vegetable gardens in uncleared heaps of weeds. Weed control will not allow pests to breed.
- Destroy cruciferous plants in a timely manner (shepherd's purse, rape, sverbyga, hiccup). This should be done before flowering and throughout the garden season.
- Loosen the soil... Apply fertilizers and top dressing on time. A hardened plant is more resistant to bedbug attacks.
- After harvesting cabbage and other cruciferous crops collect and burn the remaining leaves, stems.
- Many gardeners leave fallen leaves to obtain humus. It is more correct to burn them. For pest bugs, this is the best place to survive the winter.
Scares off bedbugs cimicifuga (perennial of the buttercup family). No wonder the second name of the plant black cohosh... It is better to plant it around the perimeter of the site. Tsimitsifuga forms dense tall thickets.
A few words in defense of pests
Some predators (posidus, two-century perillus, picromerus) eat garden pests (including the Colorado potato beetle and its larvae). One thing is upsetting. They do not tolerate cold weather, and they only fight for the harvest in the southern regions of the country.