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One of the main concerns of gardeners in the fall is the need to plan what will grow for the next year and where.
From which garden is intended for cucumbers, and which is for cabbage, will depend, for example, fertilization in the fall or winter planting of garlic and onions.
Let's look at how to properly think through the crop rotation on the site.
Many people know that it is not recommended to plant monocultures in one place. It is believed that identical nutrients are removed from the soil, and due to their shortage, the yield for this monoculture will decrease.
But this is not the main thing, the nutritional balance is replenished in a fairly simple way - by applying the necessary fertilizers. More importantly, many pests and pathogens of this culture are entrenched in this neighborhood.... They are capable of very annoying plants.
If you do mixed plantings of different plants together, then the pests will fly around your beds. Each pest flies to a certain smell of its plant. If any foreign smell is mixed with the native smell, then the pests will not lay eggs there.
There is one more nuance. The roots of all plants release mycotoxins (toxic substances in micro doses) to protect and mark their own boundaries. If one culture is grown for a long time in one place, then their surplus will accumulate in the soil, which will begin to oppress this culture.
It is for this reason that you do not need to plant the same plants 2 - 3 times in a row in one place.
To properly change the place of plants, organize crop rotation, you need to know which plants are capable of growing together, and which predecessors are suitable for whom.
Organization of crop rotation in a small area
- First, a cucumber is grown, for which it is necessary to add organic matter. It can be compacted in early spring with radish plantings.
- After it, next year, you can grow early potatoes or any of the following crops: celery, parsnips, parsley.
- For the 3rd year, cabbage can be grown on this bed, but you must first add organic matter under it, and calcium nitrate against the keel. First, we compact the cabbage by planting spinach, and then by sowing chervil.
- Then the beets come in line, for which liming of the soil is necessary. In early spring, beets can be hardened by planting lettuce.
- Then, turnip onions are grown on this bed, but organic is first introduced. The onions are compacted with watercress.
- Behind it, carrots are grown, the plantings of which are not compacted.
- In the new year, you need to add organic matter and plant zucchini. After them, you can grow beans or peas, and in mid-July, plant radishes at the very edge.
- The next year, the beds should be calcareous and sowed with one of the following crops: rutabaga, radish or turnip.
- Then organic matter is introduced and pepper is planted under the cover of the film.
- Garlic is the last in line. Then they return the cucumber again and throw organic matter on it.
This line may seem long, but it can be split into 2 or 3 parts, and then scroll through each culture independently of each other.
Most often, cucumbers and tomatoes are grown in greenhouses. Tomatoes with cucumbers should be replaced annually, and pepper grows well next to the tomato.
In small areas, it is rather difficult to organize a crop rotation. There are 2 ways out of this situation:
- Establishment of soil rotation.
- Produce mixed plantings on the same bed of different crops.
Plant compatibility is determined by some indicators:
By habit: according to the width and height of the above-ground part, and according to the requirements of illumination. Tall plants should not shade undersized plants if they are sun-loving. Shade-tolerant low-growing crops can be grown in the shade of taller plants.
Plants must have a compatible root system. First of all, by its prevalence in breadth and depth of the sucking part. It turns out that the root system should be located in the topsoil at different depths so that there is no competition for water and food.
Plants should have approximately the same requirements for the structure, fertility and acidity of the soil..
There are conditions for plant compatibility. Pests and diseases, feeding and watering, there is also the concept of mutual assistance of plants. Antagonism occurs in the exchange of root secretions and the exchange of phytoncides.
It turns out that compatibility is a rather complex concept. There are certain simplified schemes for the interaction of plants, which have developed through many years of observations by gardeners and agronomists.
It is good to plant raspberries near a plum or apple tree, and red rowan in the corners of a field with potatoes. You can leave a spruce among the apple orchard only by making restrictions on its root system. Among the berry bushes and under the apple trees, you can scatter the stems and stepchildren of fruit-bearing tomatoes, their smell disorients the pests.
Neither plant tolerates the proximity of hyssop and fennel. They must be grown in separate corners of the garden. You can not grow strawberries after potatoes because of a nematode, as well as after cabbage, cucumbers and tomatoes.
The soil rotation on the site is organized as follows: it is necessary to scatter the soil from under the nightshade crops under the berry bushes, and apply the soil from under the cabbage, onions and pumpkin seeds under the nightshade crops. Rotted compost is added to cabbage, onions and pumpkin seeds.
It's much easier when working in a greenhouse.... There, under the flowers, soil is taken out from under the tomatoes in a layer of 15 cm and the same layer of perfectly rotted compost is applied. It is on it in the new season that you need to grow cucumbers. Tomatoes will be moved to the place of cucumbers, for which it is necessary to add green organic matter all summer long. These rotted residues will be an effective top dressing for tomatoes, and they need to be grown in this garden instead of cucumbers.
Such a global soil movement is done once every 3 to 4 years. At this time, it will be quite sufficient to replace the place of cucumbers and tomatoes annually. It is better to grow green crops in the form of compactors among the category of main crops, even in greenhouses, even in beds.
The fact is that most of them with their own phytoncides are able to fend off a large number of pests not only from themselves, but also from neighbors in the garden.