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Fusarium is a very common and dangerous fungal disease that can affect a wide variety of plants at any age.
This disease is focal in nature, penetrates the soil and small wounds of the plant. Weakened plants are most susceptible to fusarium.
In the article, we will talk about the symptoms of fusarium wilting of plants, the possible danger of this disease and the conditions for its development, and also give information on methods of treatment and some useful tips on preventive measures.
What it is?
Fusarium wilting or, as it is also called dry rot, is a dangerous fungal disease that affects the vascular system of horticultural and agricultural crops. This disease also affects plant tissue, which causes roots, seeds and fruits to rot.
ATTENTION: Fusarium fungus releases toxic substances that disrupt the vital functions of crops. Sick specimens cease to bloom and bear fruit, their foliage turns yellow and falls off, the root system does not develop and darkens.
Where and how is it formed?
Fusarium wilt begins from the root system of the plant: the fungus penetrates from the soil through small roots, then moves along the large roots and then enters the stems and leaves along the discharge vessels. Therefore, at first, the leaves of the affected culture wither on the lower tiers, on the rest of the foliage, the edges become watery, and light green and yellowish spots form on the plates.
The vessels of the stalks of a diseased plant are weak, and sluggish leaves hang like rags. At high humidity, a thin coating of white can be observed on them.
Conditions for the appearance of dry rot
Factors activating the causative agents of fusarium:
- Improper plant care, non-compliance with keeping conditions.
- Too dense planting of culture.
- Increased acidity of the soil or too heavy soil with stagnant moisture, which prevents proper air exchange for the roots of the plant.
- An excess of chemicals or fertilizers with a high chlorine content in the soil.
- Incorrect placement of planting plants. For example, being too close to a motorway, industrial area or metallurgical plant.
- Insufficient watering, leading to dry roots and weakening of the plant.
- Too high temperature or excessive humidity for a long time.
Why is the disease dangerous?
This disease is dangerous because not only the foliage of the infected culture withers, but also its main branch, the roots rot, and the bush eventually dies out completely. If fusarium is not recognized in time and measures are not taken to cure the plant, it will not only die on its own, but also infect its fellows in the area through the soil.
Symptoms across cultures and treatments
In recent years, not only agricultural crops (legumes, grains, melons), but also almost all grown vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, potatoes, cabbage), bulbous plants (onions, garlic, tulips, hyacinths, tulips , daffodils), berry bushes (currants, gooseberries, strawberries, strawberries) and fruit trees (plums, apples, pears, peaches, apricots).
How to deal with fusarium disease?To eliminate fusarium disease and prevent it from spreading, the following control measures are used:
- Discard and destroy completely already infected specimens.
- Spray the remaining healthy plants and soil with a solution of potassium permanganate with boric acid.
- It is also recommended to sprinkle the beds with ash and powdered sulfur.
- Liming with chalk and dolomite flour helps to reduce the risk of Fusarium disease, as this fungus cannot tolerate the neutral soil environment rich in calcium.
To date, various fungicides have been developed and successfully used, the action of which is aimed at combating the Fusarium fungus:
- Sporobacterin and many others.
How to deal with gray mold on cucumbers?
How to find:
- Fusarium infection affects the vascular system of the cucumber bush. If you cut the stem or leaf of a cucumber, darkened vessels will be visible on its cut.
- Fusarium wilting can be identified by the incipient decay of the basal neck and roots of the bush. The stem in this place darkens and becomes thinner, and the leaves turn yellow and wither. The plant does not bloom well, and its ovaries die off after flowering.
Fusarium cucumber is dangerous because a 100% effective control method has not been invented against this fungus. Therefore, it is better to prevent the development of the disease with the help of preventive measures than to fight it later.
- Soil treatment... Disinfection with boiling water or green manure obtained from lupine and mustard.
- Compliance with temperature conditions... For example, cucumber seedlings are hardened in a greenhouse before being planted in open ground. This further makes the leaves of mature plants more resistant to wilting.
- Proper watering... Avoid excessive waterlogging of the soil.
Biological products and fungicides can be used as preventive measures to combat fusarium wilting of cucumbers.
Let's consider them.
- "Trichodermin" - is considered the most effective remedy in this series. It must be introduced into a slightly moistened soil 2 days before planting seedlings.
- "Baktofit", "Planriz" and "Trichophyte" - good prophylactic agents for spraying seedlings and soil.
- Fungicide "Fundazol" - the most effective remedy for combating fungus. Used for seed treatment before sowing.
- Previkur Energy - designed for seed treatment before planting in the soil.
We recommend watching a video about fusarium wilt of cucumbers:
How to detect a disease:
- The ground part of the strawberry bush and the root system acquire a brown tint.
- Leaves turn yellow and dry. Ovaries are not formed, antennae become brown and deformed.
How to fight:
- Correct crop rotation on the site: competent selection of strawberry predecessors.
- Treatment of an infected plant with the systemic fungicide "Fundazol"... Benomil - the active component of this drug, is absorbed by the roots and leaves, moving up the plant, accumulating from its apical part. The main systemic function of "Fundazol" is that protection extends to all plant organs, even to those that the working composition does not fall on during spraying.
- Fungicidal preparation "Benorad" with a wide spectrum of action... It is very effective for the treatment and prevention of many fungal diseases of strawberries, including fusarium wilting. Active protection lasts up to 10 days during the growing season of the plant.
Ways to deal with tomato disease
IMPORTANT: Tomatoes are susceptible to fusarium disease at any stage of life, and seeds may also be affected through the soil. But signs of the disease appear only at the time of flowering or fruiting.
How to find:
- The lower leaves of the tomato turn yellow and wither. Then the upper leaves of the bush begin to dry out and droop - they also turn yellow and deform.
- Brown vessels are clearly visible on the section of the stem of a diseased plant.
- If the cut bush is held in a room with high humidity for 2 days, a white thin bloom will appear on it.
How to fight:
- Preventive measures: disinfecting seeds and soil before planting tomatoes.
- Removal of affected bushes from the root to completely eliminate the focus of infection.
How to treat sunflower baskets?
Sunflower symptoms appear after flowering, when the seeds begin to ripen. How the disease manifests itself:
- On the back of the basket, slightly softened dark brown spots appear, which in the process of the disease cover its entire surface. The basket begins to dry out and harden quickly.
- A gray bloom appears on the front of the basket between the seeds. The mycelium penetrates the sunflower seeds, which become half-empty and bitter in taste.
How to fight:
- Competent crop rotation.
- Sowing sunflower varieties and hybrids that are more resistant to fungal diseases.
- Seed dressing before sowing.
- Treatment of seed and soil with KKr or Title Duo fungicides.
- Use of healthy seed material, stock.
- Cultivation of varieties and hybrids resistant to this genus of the disease.
- Planting seed in decontaminated beds.
- The introduction of nitrate nitrogen into the soil, which will help slow down the development of the disease in the infected field.
- Prevention of contamination of new areas with healthy plants with fungal spores, which can be introduced by agricultural machinery and equipment.
Not a single garden and field crop can be completely protected from infection with such a dangerous and rapidly developing disease as fusarium wilt. But preventive measures and timely detection of the disease will help save the culture and prevent the harvest from dying.