We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Potatoes are a vegetable crop that has poorly developed roots due to the increased growth of tubers. That is why fertilizing with fertilizers is of paramount importance when leaving. It depends on whether you will be with the harvest and whether it will be of excellent quality.
What is the role of mineral fertilizers in planting a vegetable and its further growth? What top dressing exist, what are needed for the successful cultivation of potatoes, what are their pros and cons - read on.
As well as recommendations and advice on how and at what stages of ripening of tubers they need to be introduced.
fel, the root system is poorly developed due to the intensive growth of tubers, the soil at the next planting
What are these substances?
Mineral fertilizers are chemical compounds artificially created in industrial conditions.
They are used for plant life support. By type, they are classified into:
- Simple. Includes one nutrient: potassium, superphosphate, ammonium nitrate, phosphate rock, etc.
- Complex. They contain two or more elements: fertika, kemira, nitrophoska, azophoska, nitrophosphate, etc.
Mineral fertilizers are divided into substances containing:
Which ones are needed?
First of all, potatoes need the following minerals:
- ammonium nitrate;
- potassium chloride;
- phosphate rock;
- urea (urea).
But of a wide range of trace elements, potatoes need nitrogen most of all. An easily assimilated form of nitrogen is what a vegetable needs. Without it, the plant grows poorly, the leaves turn pale, the roots become smaller.
Of potassium substances, those are needed where there is little chlorine. With a lack of potassium, the flowers become smaller or do not set.
With a deficiency of phosphorus, the bushes bloom late, the leaves of the potato darken.
For details on what fertilizers and in what proportions you need to apply to the ground when growing potatoes, read this article.
Advantages and disadvantages
Let's weigh the pros and cons of using chemicals in potato dressing.
- Modern mineral mixtures have reached a safer level of agricultural chemistry.
- High efficiency. The harvest is great, that there is nowhere to put the potatoes? Isn't this the result of the competent use of mineral chemical compounds?
- The plant is healthier and more resilient. After all, a healthy bush is not so easy to defeat pests.
- Selective feeding. You can add one or more microelements missing to the plant.
- The fertilization technique is not difficult. The mixtures are easy to store and transport.
- Cost effective. Having realized the surplus of the harvest, we get a profit.
- Mineral fertilizers can accumulate in plants, in the soil, affect its properties (salinity, acidity, etc.). The concentration of substances hazardous to health in potatoes is the biggest disadvantage when using them.
- Even complex top dressing is sometimes insufficient for the full nutrition of the plant. And the budget will bear the cost of purchasing additional micronutrients.
- It is easy to disrupt the dosage of the applied chemicals, and then the plant can be damaged. For example, if the soil is saturated with nitrogen, the roots of potatoes can get burned.
Why do we need it?
- Potato bushes have a weak root system. The plant needs an active intake of nutrients. The presence of trace elements in the soil ensures a good vegetation of plants.
- Balanced artificial nutrition influences the quality of tubers, improves their taste and quantity.
- Potassium increases pest resistance.
- Phosphoric compounds help the plant to adapt to sudden changes in climate, develop resistance to frost, increase the mass of starch, plant tubers are better stored.
- Provides a high protein content. In potatoes grown using chemical mixtures, it is twice as high as in those grown without a balanced mineral nutrition.
Reference. The soil consumes per ton of potatoes: 2 kg - phosphorus, 5 kg - nitrogen, 8 kg - potassium.
When to use?
- In early spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the soil. Potatoes will need them for an active growing season.
- After flowering, nitrogen is no longer used, otherwise the tops will grow at the expense of the tubers.
- During the growing period, the potatoes need to be fed again, but it should also be taken into account if the soil is sandy, the trace elements are partially washed off by rains.
- During the period of the first hilling, when the tops reach at least 12 cm in height, they make a liquid top dressing.
- During the active growing season of the plant, we add superphosphate at the rate of 2 tbsp. l per meter of land. Or a nutrient mixture: one part each of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers, two parts of potash fertilizers. Add 25 g of this solution to a bucket of water.
Mineral dressings are applied to the soil in various ways:
- root - the fertilizer is placed under the root, slightly loosening the ground;
- foliar - spraying.
Root dressing is done in clear sunny weather. This is due to the process of photosynthesis. Foliar dressing is best applied when it is cloudy or in the evening, otherwise the solution will dry out quickly and harm the leaves.
Read more about how, with what and in what quantities it is best to fertilize potatoes.
Varieties of nitrogen fertilizers:
- Ammonia nitrogen (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate) is the most popular and valuable top dressing among gardeners. High water solubility. Any soil is suitable.
- Nitrate nitrogen (sodium nitrate) - very effective, quickly absorbed, used in spring and summer. Limitation: not suitable for chernozem soils, in greenhouses.
- Amide nitrogen (urea, calcium cyanamide) - the main use of fertilizer is top dressing. It works instantly, acidifies the earth. Produced in metallurgy. Observe safety precautions.
Nitrogen substances are actively involved in the growing season. Outwardly, it looks like this: the stem thickens, the leaves grow larger, the bushes look lush and healthier. Due to the powerful supply of protein to the tubers, they grow larger and their number increases.
Important! Excess nitrogen can cause abundant growth of leaves rather than root crops. In this case, there is no need to wait for a high yield.
Mineral dressing is applied to the soil in one of three ways:
- The main one. This is done before cultivating the soil, or just before sowing, so that the bulk of the minerals enters the ground. Apply by scattering. A dispenser can be used.
- Seeding. When applied simultaneously with sowing.
- As a top dressing. Special nutrients are added during the growing season.
How to deposit:
- Nitrogen fertilizing should be applied carefully, following the instructions, carefully following the directions.
- The distance from the fertilizer applied to the soil to the bush should be within 20 cm.
- Be careful not to get fertilizer on the leaves.
- When planting potatoes, 5 g of ammonium nitrate or 7 g of ammonium sulfate are poured into each hole.
Solution for strengthening the roots of potatoes - for 15 liters of water 30 g of urea. Half a liter of solution for a bush.
Phosphate fertilizers are classified into:
- Water soluble. Simple and double superphosphate is a storehouse of phosphorus. The substance is granular, dissolves quickly. It is applied on all types of soils. Affects the root system, making it strong and viable.
- Semi-soluble. The precipitate is a fertilizer that does not dissolve in water. Use slightly acidic solutions. Suitable for soils with high acidity.
- Difficult to dissolve. Phosphate flour - dissolves only if mixed very thoroughly. It is recommended to use only on acidic soils.
What are useful for potatoes:
- Phosphorus regulates the permeability of cell membranes, supplies the plant with energy for active growth of bushes. A plant fertilized with phosphorus substances becomes more resistant to diseases, the content of protein and sugar in its tubers increases, and the root system becomes strong. As a result, planting gives a guaranteed yield.
- With phosphorus starvation, the plant begins to lag behind in growth. The leaves darken, fewer flowers are tied, the tubers are covered with brown spots, the percentage of sugar content in them falls.
Important! A plant can only get phosphorus from special phosphorus supplements.
How to fertilize:
- Phosphate fertilizers are applied before sowing, during sowing and further fertilizing.
- Superphosphate granules are applied to the soil in the spring, when the soil is prepared for planting.
- The powder must be diluted with water and used as a top dressing for growing bushes.
- The plant reacts especially hard if phosphorus is lacking in the early stages of the potato growing season. In the future, it will be almost impossible to correct the results of phosphorus starvation.
- Superphosphate is applied at the rate of 1 kg of substance per 1 hundred square meters or 3-4 g per bush.
- You can carry out foliar feeding when the potatoes are already blooming, and about a month remains before they are harvested. The following solution is introduced: dilute in 10 liters of water, stirring 100 g of superphosphate. 0.5 l for a bush.
Potash fertilizers - concentrated chloride and sulfate salts are subdivided into:
- Potassium chloride easily soluble in water. Effective on clay soil.
- Potassium salt - also dissolves quickly, but is suitable for sandy soils in which there is little potassium. It is not used in the autumn period, because of the groundwater, its concentration rapidly decreases. In autumn, the use of this fertilizer is not advisable, because there is a rapid washout by groundwater.
What are useful for potatoes:
- Potash dressing is very necessary for potatoes. They improve the characteristics of the soil, develop the root system, help to form a large number of tubers, and improve their taste. The lack of potassium affects the appearance of the plant: the bushes grow undersized, the stems fall off. The tops darkens and dries up.
Chlorine overdose in vegetative organs leads to potatoes with a high nitrate contentdangerous to human life.
How to fertilize:
- It is most effective to apply potash fertilizers in the fall, so that chlorine is neutralized during the winter and partially disappears with melt water.
- Chlorine-free potash dressings are applied in small doses in warm weather.
- During the beginning of flowering, in order to speed up the process, fertilizing is carried out with the following solution: 15-20 g of potassium sulfate, 15 g of wood ash, diluted in 10 liters of water. 1 liter under the bush.
Note! It is not recommended to feed potatoes during the formation of tubers with potassium, otherwise it will lead to a sharp decrease in starchiness in it.
Complex mineral fertilizers (nitrogen-potassium and phosphorus-potassium) are substances that provide potatoes with a complete set of essential trace elements. These substances contain two or more nutrients. It is enough to read the name on the packet, and its composition will become clear. If the root is "nitro" and "ammo" - then the mixture contains nitrogen, if "phos" - phosphorus, "ka" - potassium.
They are subdivided into:
- Complex (fertilizer mixtures) - the result of a chemical reaction of certain elements.
- Complex-mixed - the result of mixing ready-made fertilizers with further transformations.
- Mixed - the result of direct mixing of dry or granular components. It is regulated depending on the type of soil. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in them is set in the right proportions.
"Azofoska" (or "Nitroammofoska") is a mineral complex fertilizer consisting of three chemical elements: nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Has a granular structure. The product is processed in such a way that, regardless of the shelf life, it retains a crumbly state. The tool is universal, used for all types of soils.
What is useful for potatoes:
- The drug fully meets the needs of the plant in useful microelements.
- Can be used as a top dressing or in addition to other fertilizers.
- Actively influences growth, strengthens the roots.
- Helps potatoes to start flowering.
- Increases resistance to frost, dry weather, etc.
- Protects the vegetable from many diseases.
- Improves the taste of the grown crop.
- Increases the duration of the preservation of the crop.
- Remains in the soil for a long time, is not washed out by groundwater or rainwater.
On a note. "Azofoska" dissolves slowly, partially remains in the soil for the next year.
How to fertilize:
- For heavy, dense soils, the complex preparation should be applied in the fall, immediately after harvest, as the main top dressing. At the rate of 30-40 g per 1 sq. meter, or up to 4 kg per 1 hundred square meters.
- Fertilizer is applied during this period before the onset of cold weather, the earth should be warm and moist.
- On light soils "Azofoska" is applied in the spring, when the first plowing of the garden is in progress. Otherwise, the bulk of nutrients will be washed out with melt water.
- When planting potatoes, the drug is laid separately in the holes for 3-4 g.
- When shoots appear, you need to count two weeks and feed the potatoes with Azofoskaya again. The next top dressing is at the beginning of bud formation.
Introduce "Azofoska" by root or foliar method.
- The granules are dissolved in water (10-15 g of fertilizer per 10 l of water).
- In the middle of the bed, the groove is deepened by 4-5 cm.
- Fertilizer is introduced into it: 5-6 g per meter.
- Sprinkle with soil.
- Make a solution as indicated above.
- Feeding is carried out.
If, when applying "Azafoska" in autumn, it gets into cold soil, then nitrates will accumulate on top.
Fertika potato complex mineral fertilizer is a formula of trace elements and nutrients necessary for planting and caring for potatoes.
The drug is available in crystals. Completely soluble on contact with water. Contains a lot of phosphorus, up to 20% in aqueous solution.
What is useful for potatoes:
- The composition of the preparation - macro- and microelements, optimally balanced, increase the yield of potatoes.
- Does not contain chlorine harmful to vegetables.
- Promotes the formation of buds and tubers.
- Strengthens the root system.
- Improves the quality of root crops.
- The plant as a whole becomes healthier, with a vibrant, rich leaf color.
Fertika potato fertilizer is applied:
- First time in spring when planting potatoes.
- In the future, when hilling the plant as a top dressing.
- The preparation is granular; it is simply poured into moist soil. Rainwater will dissolve the substance.
Note! The drug is of moderate toxicity. Handle according to the instructions on the packaging.
"Kemira potato" - an effective formula of chemical compounds, mineral complex feeding. It includes in balanced proportions all the trace elements necessary for the life support of the plant. These are potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, boron, copper, selenium, manganese, molybdenum, sulfur, zinc.
What is useful for potatoes:
- The set and proportions of chemical elements in the composition optimally meet the requirements of growing potatoes. As a result, the tuberization process will increase, which means that the yield will increase.
- Does not contain chlorine, which is harmful to sensitive potatoes. Protects crops from nitrates.
- Increases plant immunity to temperature extremes and protects against many diseases.
- Does not depend on the method of soil cultivation.
- The grown and harvested crop is improved.
How to fertilize:
- Kemira potato complex fertilizer is introduced either in liquid form or in dry powder.
- The first top dressing in the spring, during the digging of the garden. The following ones are already at top dressing, embedding in the ground.
- Fertilized soil should be watered thoroughly.
- The micronutrients will gradually be absorbed by potatoes.
- The volume of the required substance is: 10 kg of fertilizer per one hundred square meters of the garden or in accordance with the instructions on the package.
"Potato Formula" is a complex organic mineral fertilizer, balanced plant nutrition throughout the season.
It includes a set of macro- and microelements that are very important for potatoes. It is used: when digging the ground in autumn, when planting, during the growth period, when hilling. And also as foliar feeding.
What is useful for potatoes:
- Accelerates tuberization.
- A good helper for the ripening of quality tubers, tasty and mature.
- Reduces harvest time by two weeks.
- An effective remedy against pests and diseases of potatoes.
On a note. The "Potato Formula" is simply irreplaceable for soils that are used intensively.
Consider the instructions for using the Potato Formula. How to fertilize:
- In the spring, a month before sowing, fertilizer is applied to the soil at the rate of 60 g per 1 sq. meter.
- When planting: in the holes for 15-20 g of the substance. It will also help get rid of pests.
- As a root bait: we dilute 50-80 g of fertilizer per 1 liter of water for 1 hundred square meters.
The fertilizer rate per one hundred square meters of potato crop is calculated based on the characteristics of the soil:
- For fertile soils: 1.5 kg of potassium + 2.5 kg of organic matter.
- For medium soils: 1.5 kg of potassium + 3 kg of nitrogen + 3 kg of organic matter.
- Problem soils: 1 kg of nitrate + 3 kg of phosphorus substances + 100 kg of organic matter.
Read about what fertilizers are needed for potatoes and how to apply them correctly here, and from this article you will learn how to properly fertilize potatoes to get a good harvest.
Competent and timely use of mineral fertilizers when growing potatoes will make it easy to get an ideal harvest. Delicious and aromatic potatoes will be a reward!