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After a cold winter, the human body needs to replenish the reserve of vitamins and minerals. The beginning of spring is marked by the appearance of the first greens and early vegetables. Among them are radishes. It contains: fiber, fats, B1, PP, B2, C, proteins, iron, sodium salts, phosphorus, calcium. Another advantage of the radish is that it is easy to grow even for beginners. The vegetable is unpretentious and not particularly demanding. Consider in the article whether it can be grown through seedlings, what temperature regime will be required for growing, when to sow and how to do it, as well as how to care for radishes in the future and what pests and diseases can threaten it.
Can radishes be grown through shoots?
Growing radishes through seedlings is used to get the first harvest earlier.... Despite the resistance of the radish to cold weather, it will grow faster in light and nutritious soil in the presence of the necessary amount of light, when already germinated grains are transferred to open soil. And when sowing a vegetable in open ground, you have to wait for shoots no earlier than 14 days later.
The process is easy to speed up. It is necessary to germinate the seeds in advance and plant them in the soil with seedlings. Radish prefers fertile soil. For seedlings, choose soil that is well permeable to moisture and air, fertilized with minerals and organics.
What should be the optimal temperature regime?
This vegetable is frost resistant. However, at low temperatures, seeds will germinate more slowly. Seed material germinates ideally, according to experienced gardeners, at 18 heat... When the radish began to give mass shoots, the temperature must be reduced to 8 degrees. Otherwise, the seedlings will begin to stretch.
After 4 days and before harvesting, the room is heated up to 20 in the daytime, and up to 10 heat at night. Although the vegetable is cold-resistant, the shoots will die already at 5 degrees of frost.
When to sow?
Radishes are planted for seedlings in two stages:
- From February to April.
- From August to early October.
Sowing is complicated only by the insufficient amount of sunlight necessary for a vegetable for good growth.
Step by step instructions: how to plant in the usual way?
First you need to decide on the seed and variety... To plant radishes for seedlings, choose varieties that are resistant to poor lighting, lack of moisture and ripen quickly:
- "18 days";
- Early Red;
- "Greenhouse mushroom".
To buy seeds, choose a reputable store that works directly with the grower.
The seeds must be from last year's harvest. Do not use seeds that are 2 years old or older. There is a high probability that germination will be poor, and the shoots will go to flowering arrows, and not fruits.
Important! Thanks to modern telecommunications in Moscow and St. Petersburg, you can buy radish seeds without leaving your home with one click of the mouse. The average price in both regions ranges from 20 to 25 rubles per package weighing 1 g.
It is better to buy seeds that have passed the pelleting process - treated with fertilizers and fungicides. This will favorably affect the germination and growth of seedlings at the initial stage. The shell should be chosen bright:
When using a simple seed, preference is given to the coarse fraction from 1 to 2 mm in diameter. These seeds will later yield a full harvest.
Purchased seeds need to be sorted out:
- Select the largest grains using the calibration method.
- Then prepare a solution - 50 g of table salt per 1 liter of water.
- Place the selected grains there, and sometimes stirring, hold them for 15 minutes.
- Viable seeds will settle to the bottom. The pacifiers will pop up. They are removed, since these grains will not sprout.
To protect the seedlings from pests and diseases, the seeds are disinfected before planting.:
- Preheat the oven to 60 degrees and send a baking sheet with radish grains into it for 15 minutes.
- Parchment is pre-laid on a baking sheet. The seeds are distributed so that they do not come into contact with each other.
A 1% manganese solution is also made (250 ml of liquid and 1 g of magnesium permanganate). Seeds are placed in it for 20 minutes, then washed under running water. These manipulations significantly increase the immunity of the plant.
For hardening use 2 options.
- Seed material is dipped in cold water for 24 hours. Every 4 it is changed.
- You can also place the grains in a container and cover them with water. Put the container in the refrigerator overnight, and leave it at room temperature during the day.
You can also check seeds for germination.:
- Gauze, pre-moistened, is laid on a saucer, seeds are laid out on it and covered with the second part of gauze on top.
- Moisten again and leave in a warm place. Good seed material will sprout in large quantities the next day.
After all the manipulations with the preparation of the seeds, they start planting.
For convenience radish seeds are planted in disposable cups, using the snail method or cardboard egg cells... The seedlings are delicate and fragile, so they can be easily damaged when transferred to open ground.
Using the above containers, the seedlings, when they reach a certain size, are planted together with the soil on open soil. The soil should be well loosened for better moisture and oxygen exchange. It is best to fertilize with rotted compost, peat or ash. It is not recommended to use manure. This fertilizer can burn seeds. Read more about fertilizing radishes here.
Prepared containers with soil must be moistened. Seeds should be placed to a depth of no more than 1.5 cm. Then cover with soil and tamp a little.
Important! Pre-soaked seeds will sprout the next day within 15 minutes. Dry seed will germinate in 4 days.
We invite you to watch a video about planting radishes in egg cassettes:
Moisten the soil once every 2 days... Watering should be abundant. After a drought, radishes will not produce good fruits, but will begin to bloom. When the vegetable produces the first true leaf, this is a signal to transplant it into open ground. But is it already possible to transplant radishes into open ground? Yes, if by this time warm weather has already settled on the street. Despite its frost resistance, strong morning frosts can kill radishes.
For planting in open soil, a sunny fine day is suitable. The site is chosen fairly well lit, without shade. You can cut the beds with a flat cutter or an ordinary glanders. The soil must be fertilized.
Also the best predecessors of radish are considered:
Do not plant seedlings in areas where cruciferous crops used to grow. After them, pests remain in the soil that can destroy seedlings.
Step-by-step instructions for using the snail method
To grow seedlings, use the snail method. To begin with, you need to prepare an unusual container for seedlings using such materials.:
- Transparent container for a snail.
- The soil.
- Seed material.
- Substrate. A strip up to 1.5 meters long and 10 cm wide with good porosity that does not allow moisture to pass through.
- Plastic bag.
- 3 elastic bands.
For seeds to germinate without problems, you must:
- Soak the seed in warm water for 15 minutes. The seeds are also hardened by keeping them in cold water for 24 hours, which should be replaced every 4 hours.
- Feed the seed... Dissolve trace elements in a liquid, and put seeds in it for half a day.
- Disinfect grains... To do this, use garlic water (per 100 ml 20 g of squeezed garlic) or manganese 1% solution.
Important! The prepared seed is more resistant to pests and negative external influences.
Armed with all the materials, we proceed to the formation of the snail:
- Prepare a comfortable workspace.
- Spread the tape all the way out with one end facing you. It is advisable to lay this end for a spacing.
- Pre-moistened soil, in order to avoid scattering, must be laid on the tape with a layer of no more than 1 cm, lightly tamping. It is not necessary to fill the entire strip with soil at once. In the first pairs, only 20 cm is enough.
- On the finished site with tweezers, we begin to carefully spread the seeds, stepping back 2 cm from any of the edges.Put the seeds at intervals of 2 cm from each other. Seed material should be slightly deepened with your fingers into the soil so that during further manipulations it does not fall out.
- Having completely filled the tape with soil and seeds, we twist the snail, gradually wrapping the strip into a roll.
- We put 2 elastic bands on top and bottom on the finished snail so that it does not unwind.
- Turn the snail over so that the seeds are closer to this edge, and return the crumbling earth to its place so that it protrudes slightly from the snail.
- We put the snail in a container of a suitable volume.
- Each layer of the snail must be moistened. Lack of moisture affects seed germination.
- To obtain the effect of a greenhouse, a bag is put on the snail and secured with an elastic band.
After the first shoots, the polyethylene is removed and the first true leaves of the seedlings are waited for transplanting into the ground.
Seedlings do not always grow equally large and strong... It is not necessary to remove weak growth. They can be given to grow up:
- Unwind the snail carefully.
- Choose strong shoots for transplanting into open soil, and leave weak ones. Due to the consistent distance between seeds when planting, strong shoots can be easily separated without damaging the root system of adjacent shoots.
- The snail is then rolled up again and sent to the site before the weak seedlings are large and strong.
We invite you to watch a video about planting radishes using the snail method:
What if the shoots are stretched out, and why does this happen?
Often gardeners are faced with the problem of pulling out seedlings, when the shoots do not form true sheets, but stretch upward. There are several reasons for this behavior of the vegetable:
- too high temperatures;
- lack of soil;
- lack of sufficient light.
Even if this situation has happened, do not despair. If the room temperature is too high, it must be reduced. The seedlings will grow slightly slower, but they will not stretch out. If it is a lack of soil, you need to carefully lay the stem and sprinkle with sifted soil right up to the leaves. In the absence of light, the seedlings should be placed where there will be more of it..
Diseases and pests during cultivation
The most dangerous for seedlings is the cruciform flea. This insect resembles an ordinary flea and is able to move by jumping at distances of up to 50 cm. The pest is especially dangerous during drought. So that in a few days he eats up the leaves of the seedlings and is able to completely destroy them.
You can't fight flea chemistry... Radish is a vegetable that ripens quickly. Chemical elements will not have time to completely decompose and, together with root crops, will fall on the table. The most effective method is the processing of seedlings with wood ash mixed with tobacco dust. To do this, take one part of 2 components, mix and pollinate the seedlings with the finished mixture. The manipulation is carried out up to 3 times every 4 days. This method will protect radishes from other pests:
- cabbage fly;
Also radish predisposed:
- to downy mildew;
- mucous bacteriosis;
- black leg and keel.
That is why you cannot plant radishes in places where cabbage grew before.
Unpretentious care, rapid growth makes the radish a real favorite of gardeners. You just have to choose the right variety, planting time, following all the recommendations. And then the provision of an excellent harvest of spring, juicy and healthy vegetables is guaranteed.