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Beetroot belongs to the Amarantov family (previously it belonged to the Mariev family). In the southern Russian dialects there is a dialectal name "Buryak".
Varieties: root and leaf beets. Root vegetables are elongated, conical or round in shape and have dark red flesh.
The text tells how to prepare seeds at home and how to grow different varieties of beets and where is best, including the sweet Sugar variety.
Features of cultivation
A beet seed is a seed of two or three seeds, each of which gives rise to a sprout. In order to achieve an increase in germination when growing a crop, it is recommended to soak the seeds for 2-3 days at home: pour them into a container with a small amount of water (the liquid should only slightly cover the seeds), and then change the water every 4-6 hours. Besides, to increase the germination activity, you can soak the seeds for 12-18 hours in a solution of boric acid (based on 0.2 g per 1 liter of water).
With direct sowing into the ground, it is necessary to break through the seedlings as early as possible, otherwise the thickening will provoke the weakening of the plants. With the seedling method, thinning is not required, in addition, this method helps to save seeds and accelerate the development of seedlings. Beets are thermophilic; seeds require a temperature of at least 8 ° C to germinate.
When and where are the seeds planted?
Beetroot is the most thermophilic crop among root crops; its seedlings are damaged at a temperature of minus 2-3 ° C.
Sowing is carried out about two weeks after the carrots. Beets love to grow along the edge of the ridge, which is why they go well in the same space with kohlrabi, celery and cauliflower. Prefers well-lit places, in the initial period of growth (before setting the root crop) it needs moisture. He tolerates the transplant easily enough.
How to choose the right variety?
Currently, there are many imported beetroot hybrids that are early ripening and disease resistant.
It is important to remember that each beet variety has its own characteristics:
|Beetroot.||Sugar beet.||Fodder beets.||Other names:|
|It happens red and white.||Yellowish white, used for sugar production. The most late ripening.||Industrial crop is used to feed farm animals. The shape and color of different varieties are different.||Leaves and petioles are used for food, root crops are absent.|
|Green leaves and petiole (sometimes the petiole is poorly pigmented), elongated-conical roots, have powerful roots.||Dark red leaves and roots. Rounded, rounded-conical or rounded-flat shape of root crops.||Dark red flesh and dark green leaf blade with red-violet veins.|
New breeding varieties:
- Vermont, etc.
- White Silver;
- White Silver 2;
- White Silver 3;
- Lucullus etc.
Basically, beets are grown in vegetable gardens.
Which variety is better?
Recommendations for growing in the country
- The soil.
With a neutral reaction. It is not recommended to apply fresh manure, as the root crop may begin to rot. For early maturing varieties, it is necessary to use well-drained, fertile soils. For later varieties, it is possible to use heavier soils.
- Early beets.
They have 2-3 seedlings, the distance between the holes in a row is 10 cm, the row spacing is 15-20 cm. In late February - early March, sowing is carried out in a greenhouse, and from late March to April - in the open field (according to the same scheme).
- Mid-season varieties.
Sowing in the open field is carried out in May or June. Sow two or three seeds (one seed). The distance between the nests is 10-15 cm, the row spacing is 30 cm.
- Winter growing.
End of June or beginning of July. The distance between the nests is 7-8 cm, between the rows - 30 cm.
- Growing beet seedlings.
Advantages - getting the first root crops about 20 days earlier. Beet planting should not start earlier than April, and by mid-May you can already plant sprouts in open ground. With this method of planting, in contrast to planting in open ground, thinning is not required. When transplanted into open ground, the central root is shortened by a third of the length.
To speed up rooting, the seedlings are protected from the sun with a non-woven material and watered with a humate solution. When the seedlings get stronger, the shelter is removed, the planting is thinned out, and then the planting site is mulched to maintain soil moisture and protect from weeds.
Secrets of a good harvest
How to grow beets outdoors?
- Seedlings should not be overgrown, as small plants take root better.
- The seedling method is especially important for fodder beets, as it increases their yield.
- Beets need trace elements, especially boron.
- For top dressing, it is better to choose wood ash and potash fertilizers.
- Weeding is carried out immediately after the emergence of beets.
Step by step care
Watering beets regularly in hot, dry weather is especially important. It is necessary to spend about 10 liters per 1 m² per week. Excess water is also undesirable, as it can lead to increased leaf growth., not a root vegetable. If the site is not mulched, then the day after watering it must be loosened by 4 cm. The ground around the plantings is loosened with a hoe, without touching the plants themselves. To increase the sugar content of the beets, dissolve a tablespoon of kitchen salt in a bucket of water before watering. To improve the keeping quality of root crops, watering is stopped two weeks before harvesting.
Beets must be fed every two weeks with a solution of potash fertilizer (about 3 tablespoons of fertilizer per 10 liters of water), pouring at least two glasses under each plant. When the growth of leaves slows down, they give a single feeding with infusion of weeds. You can also feed the beets with mullein infusion: 1 bucket of mullein and half a bucket of ash per 10 buckets of water.
The advantage of growing beets over other vegetables is the possibility of using a complex of machines.
- Seeders. There are automatic and manual seeders. Automatic ones are used for growing beets in large areas, manual ones - for growing in their own garden. Automatic seeders are divided into mechanical (with a maximum working speed of 6 km / h) and pneumatic (7-8 km / h). The manual seeder is designed for single-row sowing of seeds, with its help you can sow a land plot of 10 acres in an hour. Thanks to precise sowing, seed savings are possible, as well as precise distribution of the planting material.
- Row cultivators. Designed for weeding, fertilizing and hilling.
- Beet harvesters. Designed for harvesting sugar and fodder beets. There are two types: the top-lifting type (the roots are removed from the soil by the top-lifting method, and the tops are cut off in the machine) and with a preliminary cut of the tops.
- Topper harvesters
- Beet loaders. There are stationary and mobile. Carry out the selection of root crops, partial clearing from the ground, as well as loading.
Agricultural engineering errors
Let us consider further why the culture does not always grow well in vegetable gardens and what needs to be done in order to get a harvest of healthy and large root crops.
- It is necessary to monitor the weather: if the beet crops fall under a strong drop in temperature, then they can go into bloom without a root vegetable ovary.
- Planting beets on acidic and waterlogged soils is not recommended.
- If white rings are visible on the cut of the root crop, it means that the beets were overfed with nitrogen fertilizers. It is not recommended to use such beets for food.
Collection and storage of root crops
With early sowing, you can try harvesting as early as July, but most of the plants will ripen only by August. With late sowing, beets are harvested in the second half of September or October. For storage, roots are laid in boxes at a short distance from each other, sprinkling them with sawdust. It is necessary to store beets in a frost-protected room.
Diseases and pests
|Fungal root disease of seedlings||Due to the thickening of the crops, the sub-seed knee of the beet dries up and turns black. The stem dries up at the base. To prevent the disease, the crops are watered with a solution of "Fitosporin", and also carefully thinned out.|
|Downy mildew or downy mildew||It is necessary to water the plantings with Fitosporin solution.|
|Leaf mosaic||A viral disease that reduces yields. Currently, no effective means of control have been found.|
|Beet aphid||It is necessary to treat the plants with Fitoferm. Two to after treatment, the plants can be eaten.|
|Spring and summer flies||It is necessary to water the plants with a solution of table salt (1 glass of salt per bucket of water).|
|Beet bug||The cause of the spread is weeds.|
Prevention of various problems
- When growing chard (leaf beet), it is necessary to constantly remove the marginal leaves, which can be immediately used for food. Otherwise, the plant will bloom.
- Redness of beet leaves is an indicator of too acidic soil or lack of sodium. To get rid of the problem, you need to sprinkle the soil with ash, and then water the plants directly over the leaves with salt water (1 glass of table salt per 10 liters of water). Consume 1 liter. solution for 1 meter of planting.
Beets have a beneficial effect on digestion and contain almost the entire set of essential nutrients. But with excessive consumption of sweets and other foods, it increases the likelihood of an allergic reaction to beets. We advise you to familiarize yourself with our materials on how allergies manifest and how to eliminate it, as well as whether beets are allowed with HB, pregnancy and at what age this vegetable can be given to a child.
Beets are one of the healthiest vegetables: they are rich in vitamins and microelements, due to the content of antioxidants they are used for the prevention of cancer, in addition, beets are rich in iron, which makes them an indispensable aid in the treatment of anemia (how is the root vegetable useful for health?). At the moment, there are many varieties of beets, it is used for food, for animal feed, in the production of sugar, which makes it one of the most valuable products in our life.