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how to prune a sapwood?
viburnum is a genus that has many species of shrubs, evergreens and deciduous leaves; in Italy the most widespread is the viburnum vat, which is therefore called viburnum, in the broad sense; for this reason I believe that your viburnum is a viburnum tinus, or an evergreen shrub, with dark green leaves, of small dimensions.
These shrubs are quite vigorous, and even if the development is quite slow, over the years they tend to become quite bulky, and placed in the earth hyena they can reach 3-4 meters in height; for this reason it is used to prune them, in order to contain their development, and to obtain a dense and compact shrub, with an orderly and rounded shape.
These beautiful shrubs prepare flower buds already in autumn, and flowering occurs in winter or early spring; for this reason pruning is practiced in late spring, after flowering. If we intervened before, we would go to cut away; together with the branches, also the buds, losing the small bunches of white flowers, very decorative.
Therefore pruning of viburnum takes place in April-May, or at least when the shrub has already produced all the flowers, which are withering.
In general, however, vigorous pruning is not practiced, the branches that tend to grow excessively in length are shortened, and the branches are more delicate and poorly developed, so as to slightly aerate the thick foliage of leaves.
In addition to containing the size of the shrub, pruning the viburnum improves its aesthetic appearance and tends to favor the development of denser vegetation.
Unfortunately it happens more and more often to see novice gardeners at work in a beautiful garden at the end of winter, who go to prune everything in front of them, badly polluting all the shrubs; in this way they deprive us, and deprive themselves of most of the blooms, as viburnum, Judas trees, forsythiae, Japanese peach trees, all bloom on the branches of the previous year, and therefore an early pruning removes most of the buds. In contrast, shrubs such as caryopteris, or roses, benefit greatly from pruning in late winter, which favors the development of new branches, and therefore more abundant flowering.